2 ; 1 ; in Month : January (2021) Article No : semrj-v2-1006
Rafik R1*, Andrew RR1, Mark RR1 and Alaa I2

1. Abstract The COVID-19 disease and pandemic eruption have caused a major concern for patients and healthcare systems globally. Immunological therapies are among the areas that require a lot of attention as the immunological consequences of the infection are neither well defined nor well understood. All medical reports indicate that severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection has a fatal outcome often results from alveolar injury that impedes airway capacity and multi-organ failure. Both of these complications are associated with the hyper production of cytokines that is known by the term cytokine storm and also called cytokine release syndrome. Strong body of clinical reports show that both mild and severe forms of disease result in cytokine secretion through changes in circulating leukocyte subsets. This is accompanied by elevated level of cytokines production. The milieu of cytokines produced includes IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, TNF, GM-CSF, IP-10 (IFN-induced protein 10), IL-17, MCP-1, MCP-3 and IL-1ra. With no surprise immune-therapies that target the immune response and curtail the cytokine storm in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients have become a focus of recent clinical trials. In this mini-review we are also highlighting the importance of monitoring closely the levels of the cytokines as a true measure for the patient`s status and immunity level.

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